Aquatic Plants in Pond Culture (Classic Reprint)
Among the freshwater fishes most desirable for food purposes and for sport-fishing there are certain species, such as the basses, crappies, sunfishes, and catfishes, which are not susceptible to manipulation for the taking and impregnation of their eggs, but must be allowed to mate and select nests, on which the spawn is deposited, fertilized, and hatched in the natural way. For the cultivation of these species, therefore, it is necessary to provide surroundings fulfilling their requirements, and at the same time permitting control of the fish, which purpose is accomplished by the maintenance of natural or artificial ponds. These ponds are stocked with the maximum number of adult fish, and the young hatch in numbers abnormal for the volume of water in which they are contained, there to be reared for a few weeks or months and then distributed to other waters as desired. The pond itself affords sustenance to the young, and therefore the pond is the direct object of attention in order to produce the maximum number of fish. Fish culture under these conditions is consequently intensive pond culture, and in the United States the term 'pond culture' distinguishes this branch of fish culture from the propagation of all fishes whose eggs can be expelled and fertilized artificially or which are incubated in hatching houses by the use of special apparatus and equipment. The species to which it is applied are chiefly the black basses, crappies, sunfishes, and catfishes.
The propagation of the Salmonidæ:, notably the trouts, approaches pond culture in the fact that several species are often reared in ponds, whereas the other fishes hatched in special equipment are usually distributed as fry as soon as the yolk sac is absorbed.
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The Casquet of Literature V6: Being a Selection in Poetry and Prose from the Works of the Most Admired Authors (1882)